Stainless hlau yog dab tsi?

Ntawm Wikipedia, cov dawb encyclopedia


Kuv tuaj loszaj dabneeg

Qhov ntawv tshaj tawm, thaum nws nyob hauv lub 1915 New York zaug, txog rau txoj kev stainless hlau [4]

Cov corrosion kuj laj-chromium alloys yog thawj zaug kuaj pom tias 1821 ntawm Fabkis txoj metallurgist Pierre Berthier, uas muab sau lawv kuj tiv thaiv tus mob no ntawm tej kua qaub thiab pom tias lawv siv nyob rau hauv cutlery. Tau tsis tau tsim muaj ua ke nrog cov uas tsis muaj thiab muaj nyob rau hauv ntau niaj hnub stainless steels chromium metallurgists ntawm lub xyoo pua puv 19, thiab lub High School-chromium alloys lawv kuj ua tau thiab nkig los tau xwb.

Nyob rau lub caij 1890s Hans Goldschmidt ntawm lub teb chaws Yelemees tsim ib txoj kev aluminothermic (thermite) rau cov uas ua cov pa roj carbon-dawb chromium. 1904 thiab 1911 ntau soj ntsuam ntawm, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Leon Guillet ntawm Fabkis, npaj alloys uas yuav niaj hnub pom tau tias cov hlau stainless.

Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft los ua tus 366-tuj sailing yacht Germania featuring ib chrome-npib tsib xee hlau hull nyob hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees hauv 1908. [5] hauv 1911, Philip Monnartz qhia rau hauv cov kev sib raug zoo ntawm cov chromium thiab corrosion kuj. Nyob rau 17 lub kaum hli ntuj 1912, Krupp engineers Benno Strauss thiab Eduard Maurer patented austenitic stainless hlau ua Nirosta. [6] [7] [8]

Zoo xws li cov uas tau noj chaw contemporaneously hauv lub tebchaws United States, qhov twg Christian Dantsizen thiab Frederick Becket nyob industrializing ferritic stainless hlau. Nyob rau hauv 1912, Elwood Haynes thov U.S. patent rau ib martensitic hlau stainless alloy, uas yog tsis pom zoo txog 1919. [9]

Tseem 1912, Harry Brearley ntawm cov xim av-Firth kev soj ntsuam kuaj hauv Sheffield, hais, hos mus nrhiav ib tug alloy corrosion-resistant rau rab phom tej kas tham, sab thiab tom qab industrialized ib martensitic hlau stainless alloy. Tus foundations yog txhaj ob xyoos hauv ib lub ib hlis ntuj 1915 xovxwm hauv lub New York zaug. [4] cov hlau ntawd tom qab marketed nyob rau hauv lub "Staybrite" hom ntawm Firth Vickers hauv hais thiab yog siv rau cov tshiab toj nkag rau lub tsev so Savoy nyob rau London 1929. [10] Brearley ntaub ntawv rau ib tug neeg patent nyob 1915 xwb kom paub hais tias Haynes twb twb sau npe ib patent. Brearley thiab Haynes pooled lawv nyiaj thiab nrog rau ib pawg investors ua tus American hlau Stainless li, muaj tsev hauv paus nyob hauv Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. [11]

Thaum hauv paus hlau stainless muag hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas ntawm ntau hom lub npe hu li "Allegheny hlau" thiab "Nirosta hlau". Txawm li ntawm cov kev lag luam hauv metallurgy lub npe eventual tseem ua zab ua zuav; hauv 1921 luam phau ntawv journal ib yog hu tias "unstainable hlau". [12] 1929, ua ntej koj lub siab zoo kawg thiab ntaus, li 25,000 tons stainless hlau nyob tsev thiab muag hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas. [13]

Zog [txawv]

Oxidation [txawv]

Siab oxidation kuj nyob rau saum cua hauv kub ambient yog nquag tiav nrog loov ntxiv ntawm tsawg kawg yog 13% (los luj) chromium, thiab txog li 26% yog siv rau tej kev kawm hnyav. [14] cov chromium tas li ib txheej bacteria passivation chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) thaum raug cov pa. Txheej yuag heev yuav tsis pom heev, thiab cov hlau tshua lustrous thiab du. Impervious dej thiab cua, tiv thaiv cov hlau uas niaj, txheej no thiab no txheej ceev nrooj reforms thaum tus nto zaus. Cov phenomenon no yog hu ua passivation thiab pom muaj rau lwm co, xws li cov aluminium thiab titanium. Corrosion kuj yuav muaj adversely cuam tshuam yog hais tias cov kev tivthaiv yog siv nyob rau hauv ib cov-oxygenated xwb, ib tug piv txwv li raug tau underwater keel bolts faus rau hauv cav ntoo.

Thaum stainless hlau qhov chaw xws li ceev thiab bolts yog yuam ua ke, txheej oxide yuav tsum chais tawm, uas seem los weld ua ke. Thaum forcibly rhuav, tus welded cov khoom yuav raug torn thiab laws ntawv, tus nyhuv paub li galling. Tug no galling yuav zam tau los ntawm kev siv khoom txawv rau seem yuam ua ke, xwsli bronze thiab stainless hlau, los yog kuj muaj ntau hom kev stainless steels (martensitic tiv thaiv austenitic). Tsis tas li ntawd, ob tug alloys ntau electrically txuas nrog rau ib cheeb tsam thiab noo yuav li ua ib voltaic pawg thiab corrode sai. Nitronic alloys los ntawm cov xim alloying manganese thiab nitrogen muaj ib tug nyiam tsib muaj txo. Ntxiv thiab, cov pob qij txha threaded yuav tau lubricated tiv thaiv galling. Tsawg-kub carburizing yog ib qhov uas zoo eliminates galling thiab tso cai rau siv cov zoo xws li cov ntaub ntawv tsis raug corrosion thiab cov lubrication xav tau.

Cov acids [txawv]

Stainless hlau feem ntau heev tiv taus ua mob los ntawm cov kua qaub no, tab sis tsis zoo no yog nyob ntawm tus phaj thiab concentration cov kua qaub, surrounding kub thiab hom hlau. Yog hom 904 tiv taus sulfuric acid sov, txawm tias niam END; txhob siv hom 316 thiab 317 yeej resistant 10%, thiab 304 sulfuric acid nyob twg concentration nyob ib puag ncig. Txhua hom hlau stainless thaum nws nres ntawm phosphoric acid, 316 thiab 317 ntau heev dua 304; Hom 304L thiab 430 tau ntse siv nrog nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid yuav ua puas tau txhua yam ntawm stainless hlau, thiab yuav tsum pov tseg. [15]

Bases [txawv]

Koob 300 tawm ntawm qib hlau stainless no unaffected yog ib yam ntawm cov tsis muaj zog bases xws li ammonium hydroxide, txawm nyob hauv END thiab sov siab. Rau tib qib kawm ntawm stainless raug ntsib bases xws li sodium hydroxide ntawm END thiab kev kub muaj peevxwm yuav tej zaum muaj ib txhia etching thiab cracking, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov uas muaj chlorides xws li sodium hypochlorite ntsiab. [15]

Organics [txawv]

Hom 316 thiab 317 muaj ob pab tau rau storing thiab tuav acetic acid, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv cov ntsiab uas nws yog txiav nrog formic acid thiab thaum aeration no tsis yog tam sim no (pa mus tiv thaiv kom stainless hlau nyob hauv cov neeg mob zoo li no), tias 317 qhia qhov tseem ceeb tshaaj plawg kuj mus corrosion. Hom 304 feem ntau kuj siv nrog formic acid tias nws yuav yuav discolor rau cov tshuaj. Txhua qib thaum nws puas tsuaj los ntawm aldehydes thiab amines, tab sis yog nyob rau hauv rooj plaub tom tw qib 316 yog preferable 304; cellulose acetate yuav ua puas 304 tsuas yog cov kub cia uas tsis muaj. Nqaijrog thiab fatty acids uas tsuas raug rau cov qib 304 sov saum 150 °C (302 °F), thiab qib 316 saum 260 °C (500 °F), thaum 317 yog unaffected sov tag nrho. Hom 316L yog yuav tsum tau ua ntawm urea. [15]

Hluav taws xob thiab magnetism [txawv]

Ib yam li hlau, hlau stainless yog ib tug neeg xyuas pib kuj tsis muaj hluav taws xob, muaj tsawg hluav taws xob conductivity li tooj.

Ferritic thiab martensitic stainless steels yog sib nqus. Annealed austenitic stainless steels yog cov-sib nqus. Cov qhov hauv koj ua hauj lwm yuav ua austenitic stainless steels sib nqus ib nyuag.

Daim ntaub ntawv [txawv]

Koov ntawm lub nce ntawm sab laug hauv qab ntawm daim duab no thiab yog muaj tus ntshiab lub ntuj featureless

Tus 630-taw-High School (190 m), stainless-clad (hom 304) rooj vag koov nyiaj thiab lub sij St. Louis skyline

Yog tus pinnacle New York Chrysler tsev clad Nirosta stainless hlau, ib daim ntawv ntawm yam 302 [16] [17]

Ib daim duab stylized ntawm ib tug neeg outstretched caj npab thiab lub taub hau me ntsis tom ntej, qaij de txiv neej hnav lub winged thiab crested kaus mom hlau, mounted rau lub façade ntawm lub tsev

Duab puab deco kos duab rau ntawm lub hwj huam Niagara-Mohawk tsev nyob Syracuse, New York

Stainless hlau's hauj corrosion thiab uas tseg tau, tsis tshua muaj txij nkawm thiab paub lustre ua ib zoo tagnrho cov khoom siv rau ntau yam kev siv. Muaj ntau tshaj 150 qib ntawm stainless hlau, uas kaum tsib feem ntau yuav siv. Tus alloy yog as mus rau coils, los xij, daim hlau, tuav, hlau, thiab tubing tau muab sau rau hauv cookware, cutlery, tsev kho vajtse, seev phais, loj khoom, muaj khoom (piv txwv, hauv refineries qab zib) thiab ua ib automotive thiab aerospace yam ntxwv alloy thiab siv khoom siv hauv lub tsev loj. Cia tso tsheb hlau luam thiab tankers siv coj tau kua txiv kab ntxwv thiab lwm yam zaub mov yog feem ntau yog ua los ntawm hlau stainless, vim yog nws ua hauj corrosion. Qhov no tseem influences nws txoj siv hauv chav chaw thiab finishes ntxuav cov nroj tsuag, raws li nws tau chav-nawb thiab sterilized thiab tsis xav tau cov xim muaj hlau los yog lwm qhov chaw ua zaub mov.

Stainless hlau yuav muab siv rau cov hniav nyiaj hniav kub thiab watches nrog 316L yog hom kheev siv rau tej kev siv. Nws yuav tsum rov tas los ntawm kev txua thiab yuav tsis oxidize los yog tig dub.

Tej firearms teeb hlau stainless Cheebtsam ua tus lwm txoj rau blued los yog parkerized hlau. Ib co yajphom qauv, xws li cov Smith & Wesson Model 60 thiab cov rab yaj phom nees M1911, yuav qhia kom paub txij nkaus stainless hlau. Qhov no yuav qhia ib-ci tas zoo sib xws nyob rau hauv qhov tsos kom npib tsib xee plating. Tsis zoo li plating, tus tag tsi yuav khaus, xim nti, coj zoo los ntawm kev muab (xws li thaum pheej raug tshem tawm ntawm ib lub holster), los yog xeb zaus.

Ib co manufacturers automotive siv stainless hlau ua hniav highlights nyob rau hauv lawv cov tsheb.

Architecture [txawv]

Tsab xov xwm tseem ceeb: Architectural hlau

Siv hlau stainless rau vaj tse rau vim li cas leej tswv yim thiab aesthetic. Stainless hlau ib hauv vogue lub sij hawm daim duab deco. Ntu no muaj nto moo tshaj plaws yog lub seem ntawm lub tsev (pictured) Chrysler. Ib co tsimtsa thiab vas nthiv-zaub mov hauv cov khw siv panels loj ornamental thiab stainless fixtures thiab rooj tog zaum. Vim yog lub xauv los ntawm cov khoom ntawd, muaj ntau cov tsev khaws lawv yeej pom. Stainless hlau siv hnub no nyob rau hauv vaj tse vim cov xauv no thiab cov Disease fact nws yog ib lub tuam tsev weldable hlau uas yuav muab los ua aesthetically pleasing nrhiav. Ib qho piv txwv ntawm ib lub tsev rau nws cov khoom exploited yog ib qho lub Art Gallery of Alberta hauv Edmonton, uas yog qhwv hauv stainless hlau.

316 stainless yam yuav muab siv rau tus sab nrauv rau Petronas ntxaib yees thiab Jin ua mos tsev, ob tug neeg ntiaj teb skyscrapers siab tshaj. [17]

Tus Parliament lub tsev ntawm Australia nyob rau hauv Canberra muaj ib tug ncej chij stainless hlau uas muaj tshaj 220 tonnes (240 luv tons).

Tus aeration lub tsev Edmonton Composting koj tsev neeg, 14 hockey rinks, qhov luaj li cas yog cov coob stainless hlau lub tsev nyob rau hauv North America.

Txuas hniav [txawv]

Cala Galdana choj nyob rau hauv Minorca (Spain) yog tus thawj hlau stainless kev choj.

Sant Fruitos txauv rov qab choj (Catalonia, Spain), koov choj neeg taug kev.

Padre Arrupe choj (Bilbao, Spain) links cov tsev khaws puav pheej Guggenheim mus rau lub tsev kawm ntawv ntawm Deusto. [18]

Monuments thiab sculptures [txawv]

Unisphere, ua lub tsev raws li lub ntsiab cim ntawm 1964-5 World's Fair nyob New York City, yog ua lub tsev ntawm Type 304 L stainless hlau ua tus kheej nrog ib txoj kab uas hla ntawm 120 txhais taw, thiab 36.57 meters.

Lub rooj vag koov (pictured) clad nkaus hauv stainless hlau: 886 tons (804 metric tonnes) ntawm in 0.25 (6.4 hli) phaj, #3 tag, ntaus 304 stainless hlau. [19]

Lub teb chaws As Mes Lis Kas tubrog nyuj hoom Memorial muaj ib austenitic stainless hlau yam ntxwv tawv.

Tus Atomium hauv zaub pob, Belgium twb renovated nrog stainless-hlau cladding hauv ib renovation tiav nyob rau xyoo 2006; yav dhau los mas cov spheres thiab cov menyuam ntawm cov qauv tau clad nyob aluminium.

Lub rooj vag huab duab puab los Anish Kapoor, nyob Chicago, teb chaws Asmeskas.

Sibelius monument nyob Helsinki, Finland, yog tsim los ntawm stainless hlau leeg nkaus.

Lub Kelpies los ntawm Falkirk, Scotland.

Tus txiv neej cov hlau (duab puab) hauv qab uas siv hauv Rotherham, hais.

Cov Juraj Jánošík monument nyob Terchova, Slovakia.

Lwm [txawv]

Automotive lub cev

Cov Allegheny Ludlum Corporation ua haujlwm Ford rau ntau yam tswvyim tsheb nrog lub cev stainless hlau ntawm lub 1930s los ntawm 1970s, raws li demonstrations uas tej zaum cov ntaub ntawv. Tus 1957 thiab 1958 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham muaj ib stainless hlau vov. 1981 thiab 1982, kev faib lub tsheb ntau lawm DeLorean DMC-12 siv hlau stainless cev panels dua ib tug siv tam iav yas monocoque. Intercity tsheb thauj mus los ntawm Industries tsav tsheb loj thauj neeg yog cov los ntawm stainless hlau. Lub vaj huam sib luag aft lub cev ntawm lub Porsche Cayman qauv (2-rooj coupe hatchback) yog tsim los ntawm stainless hlau. Nws yog sab thaum ntxov cev prototyping tias pa hlau yuav tsis yuav ua tsis tau cracking (vim cov phooj curves thiab cov ces kaum hauv lub tsheb ntawd). Li no, Porsche tau raug puab yuam siv hlau stainless cov Cayman.

Neeg nrog caij rail tsheb

Tsheb Rail muaj feem ntau raug tsev siv corrugated stainless hlau panels (rau lwm yam muaj zog). Qhov no yog nrov tshwj xeeb tshaj yog thaum tus 1960s thiab 1970s, tabsis muaj lawm declined. Ib tug piv txwv notable yog ntxov Pioneer Zephyr. Notable qub manufacturers ntawm stainless hlau rolling Tshuag nyob Budd tuam txhab (tebchaw Asmesliskas), uas yeej tau ntaub ntawv Nyiajpoom Teb lub Tokyu tsheb li, thiab cov tswvnum Portuguese Sorefame. Ntau railcars nyob hauv lub teb chaws As Mes Lis Kas no tseem tsev nrog stainless hlau, tsis zoo li luag lub teb chaws uas tau txav deb.

Aircraft

Budd kuj ua ib tug dav hlau, tus Budd BB-1 Pioneer, raj hlau stainless thiab ntawv, uas yog ib tug zaub nyob hauv lub koom haum Franklin.

Cov American Fleetwings hiav txwv noog amphibious aircraft ntawm 1936 tseem ua tau siv ib lub hull spot-welded stainless hlau.

Lub tuam txhab Bristol dav hlau ua rau tagnrho-stainless steel Bristol 188 high-speed kev tshawb fawb aircraft, uas xub ya mus rau hauv 1963.

Siv cov stainless hlau hauv mainstream aircraft yog hindered nws ntev li ntawm hnyav dua lwm cov ntaub ntawv, xws li txhuas.

Airports

Hlau stainless yog ib niaj hnub sib rau vov ntaub rau airports vim nws tsis glare reflectance kom pilots ntawm qab qauj muag, thiab rau nws cov khoom uas cia thermal reflectance thiaj li ceev ntawm lub-ru tsev xwm kub ambient. Lub Hamad International tshav dav hlau nyob hauv cov Qatar ua tau nrog txhua stainless hlau vov rau lwm yam, thiab raws li tus Sacramento International tshav dav hlau nyob hauv California.

Nyiaj-kub

Valadium, ib tus hlau stainless thiab 12% npib tsib xee alloy siv chav kawm ntawv thiab cov tub rog rings. Valadium no feem ntau yog nyiaj-toned, tab sis yuav electro-plated muab nws ib tug laus kub. Cov laus kub ntau yog hu ua tshav-lite Valadium. [20] lwm "Valadium" hom alloy muaj luam-lub npe txawv, uas muaj cov npe xws li "Siladium" thiab "Dawb Lazon".

Kev kho hniav

Hlau stainless no siv rau ntau yam kev siv hauv kev kho hniav. Nws yog ib hom siv hlau stainless muaj ntau lub sterilized seev xws li koob, [21] endodontic ntaub ntawv rau txoj kev kho cov kwj dej cag, hlau posts cag kwj dej kho hniav, ib ntus yas hau hniav thiab yas hau hniav hniav deciduous, thiab nyob ntawm tej koov thiab nkauj hauv orthodontics. [22] qhov phais hlau stainless alloys (e.g., 316 qes-cov hlau) muaj kuj tau siv nyob rau hauv tej qhov thaum kev cog hniav. [23]

Txij nkawm ntawm stainless hlau [txawv]

Yog kho los yog muab incorrectly, tej qeb ntawm stainless hlau yuav discolor los tsuas. Kom muaj zog optimum, ntawm qhov chaw yuav tsum tau tuaj mus tsis tu ncua.

Tu thaum tus plahaum [txawv]

Qhov zoo tshaj ntawm cov plahaum muaj feem xyuam rau lub xauv thiab lifespan ntawm stainless hlau. [24] yog li ntawd, nws tseem ceeb heev rau koj kom ntseeg tau tias cov hlau stainless nyob zoo mob ua ntej tus plahaum. Feem ntau, muab nws tus ceev huv yog txaus ua ntej plahaum. Tsis tas li ntawd, yog dej paug deg tam sim no, dua yog yuav tsum tau txhaj. Nyob hauv tej liaj teb xws li aerospace, pharmaceuticals, thiab tuav khoom noj khoom haus, ib txuj tu siab heev yuav tsum kom yuav tsum tau muab kev pab ntxiv.

Niaj zaus txij nkawm [txawv]

Txij nkawm yuav tsum kom muaj qhov zoo thiab mob yeej thooj li hlau. Nyob ntawm qhov chaw, nws yog nyob ntawm ib thiab kaum zaug ib xyoo. Ib nkawm muab sij ho prolongs txoj hauj lwm ntawm stainless hlau. [25]

Cuab yeej siv rau kev txij nkawm [txawv]

Ntaub mos thiab dej: tsis tsim teeb meem kom hniav zoo nkauj thiab kev tu

Xab npum me ntsis: yog raug tsis tau yooj yim lifted dej

Iav tov los ntxuav: pab tau thaum uas tshem cov yiv tes thiab tsuas zoo ib yam li

Ub thiab rov qab siv lub [txawv]

Stainless hlau yog 100% recyclable. Ib yam twj paj nruas nruab nrab hlau stainless yog li txog txog 60% siv khoom uas kwv yees li ntawm 40% originates los ntawm cov khoom thaum xaus ntawm-lub neej thiab li 60% los ntawm manufacturing dab. [26] raws lub International muab vaj huam sib luag tus hlau Stocks nyob rau hauv daim ntawv qhia txog haiv neeg, tus per capita Tshuag ntawm stainless hlau siv nyob rau hauv lub neej yog 80180 kg ntev dua los nyob hauv lub teb chaws thiab 15 kg nyob teb chaws no tsawg.

Yog muaj lwm yam lag luam uas recycles usable seem rau stainless hlau ciaj uas muag ntau. Cov khoom no feem ntau kauj, ntawv thiab qhia cov lus nug. Cov khoom no rau ib cov nqe cua-tshaj-prime thiab muag zoo coj mus muag ua stampers thiab hlau sheet lub tsev nyob. Cov khoom yuav raug khawb, qho to thiab hmlos qhov twg tiam sis yog ua kom cov specifications tam sim no.

Hom stainless hlau [txawv]

Tsab xov xwm tseem ceeb: Qib SAE steel

Ntau ntau hauv daim bent cov yeeb nkab uas flange sib txuas, strapped mus ua ib tug ntoo pallet

Kav thiab yog ua los ntawm cov hlau stainless fittings

Muaj ntau ntau hom stainless steels: thaum npib tsib xee ntxiv, xws li, tus austenite tsa ntawm laj yog stabilized. No siv lead ua qauv ua tej steels zoo uas tsis yog-sib nqus thiab tsawg nkig tsis sov. Hardness siab thiab muaj zog, ntxiv cov ntawv ntxiv. Muab kub kho no, cov steels yog siv rau cov khoom xws li rab chais li tuaj, cutlery, thiab lwm yam cuab yeej.

Teeb meem loj txog ntawm manganese muaj tau siv hlau stainless tau ntau ntau yam. Manganese preserves ib austenitic qauv nyob hauv cov hlau, zoo xws li cov npib tsib xee, tab sis tsawg them tus nqi.

Cov qauv crystalline kuj txwv kom muab zais stainless steels:

Austenitic, los yog 200 thiab 300 series, stainless steels muaj ib austenitic crystalline qauv, uas yog ib lub ntsej muag kheej sau lo lus teb siv lead ua qauv. Austenite steels nrhiav txog li 70% ntawm tag nrho cov hlau stainless ntau lawm thiab. Lawv muaj lub siab kawg 0.15% cov, tsawg kawg 16% chromium thiab npib tsib xee txaus thiab/los yog manganese ua tus khaws ib tug qauv tag nrho sov los ntawm thaj av ntawd cryogenic rau lub melting cheej nyob ntawm tus alloy austenitic.

200 seriesaustenitic chromium-npib tsib xee-manganese alloys. Yog hom 201 hardenable los ntawm kev ua hauj lwm no; Hom 202 yog lub ntsiab stainless hlau. Zuj zus lawm npib tsib xee ntaub ntawv kawm thiab ntau heev manganese ntsiab nyob rau hauj corrosion muaj zog. [27]

300 tawm series— cov lug tseem sivaustenite hlau yog 304, los yog 18/8 rau nws muaj pes tsawg leeg 18% chromium thiab 8% npib tsib xee. [ 28] 304 yuav raug xa mus rau li A2 stainless (tsis yuav tsis meej pem nrog AISI qib A2 cua hardening alloy tuam steel uas muaj li 5% chromium). Lub austenite hlau ob tshaj yog rau cov qib uas 316, kuj hu ua A4 stainless thiab cov hu ua tubrog nkoj qib stainless, siv cov neeg uas nws muaj zog kuj mus corrosion. Tus raug muaj pes tsawg leeg 18% chromium thiab 10% npib tsib xee, paub feem ntau thaum 18/10 stainless, yog siv nyob rau hauv cutlery thiab cookware zoo. 18/0 los kuj muaj.

Superaustenitic stainless steels, Allegheny Ludlum alloy AL-6XN thiab 254SMO, muaj ntau kuj mus chloride pitting thiab crevice corrosion vim tsis muaj molybdenum siab cov ntsiab lus (> 6%) thiab nitrogen loov ntxiv, thiab lub npib tsib xee ntawv dua Saib kuas zoo kuj yuav muaj kev nyuaj siab-corrosion cracking ntev koob 300 tawm. Ntau dua alloy ntawv ntawm superaustenitic steels ua lawv kim kim. Lwm tus steels yuav muaj kev kawm zoo ib yam li them tus nqi qis thiab cov najnpawb rau tej daim ntaub ntawv, xws li ASTM A387 yog siv nyob rau hauv cov hlab ntsha hauv siab tab sis yog cov tsawg-alloy cov steel nrog lub ntsiab lus chromium ntawm 0.5% rau 9%. [29] tsawg-cov versions, xwsli 316L lossis 304L, yog siv los kom koj tsis txhob corrosion teeb meem los ntawm vuam. Yog dua Qib 316LVM biocompatibility nyob qhov twg yuav tsum tau txhaj (xws li lub cev kev cog hniav thiab piercings). [30] cov "L" txhais tau hais tias cov ntsiab lus ntawm qhov alloy yog 0.03%, uas yuav txog lub sensitization nyhuv (nag lossis daus ntawm chromium carbides nyob lis Area) los ntawm qhov kev kub muaj peevxwm muab kev koom tes hauv vuam.

Ferritic stainless steels feem ntau muaj yam xws zoo li tshuab zog dua austenitic qib, tiam sis muaj txo kuj corrosion, vim yog lub sab chromium thiab npib tsib xee ntaub ntawv kawm. Lawv tseem feem ntau tsis tshua kim heev. Ferritic stainless steels tau nyhav kheej lub cev thiab muaj 10.5% thiab 27% chromium nrog npib tsib xee tsawg heev, yog yam twg, tiam sis ib co kuj muaj cov hmoov txhuas. Tau ntawv feem ntau muaj xws li molybdenum; ib txhia, aluminium los yog titanium. Qib hom ferritic muaj 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, thiab 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni. Cov alloys tau degraded uas muaj cov \sigma chromium, tus intermetallic theem uas yuav tshwm sim sai sai li vuam.

Riam Swiss pab tub rog yog los ntawm martensitic stainless hlau.

Martensitic stainless steels yog tsis li corrosion-resistant ua tus lwm ob hoob tiam sis muaj muaj zog thiab tawv, li no mas machinable, thiab hardened tau los ntawm kev kho cua sov. Martensitic stainless hlau muaj chromium (1214%), molybdenum (0.21%), npib tsib xee (tsawg tshaj 2%), thiab cov (txog 0.11%) (muab nws hardness ntau tiam sis ua cov khoom siv ntau lub nkig). Nws yog quenched thiab sib nqus.

Ob lub tsev stainless steels muaj ib microstructure mixed austenite thiab cov ferrite, cov taw feem ntau yog tau los ua ib tug kev ntse rau 50/50, txawm tias ua alloys coj mus muag qhov piv tau 40/60. Ob lub tsev stainless steels muaj ob zaug roughly tus muaj zog dua austenitic stainless steels thiab kuj paub kuj yuav laus corrosion, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog pitting, crevice corrosion thiab kev nyuab siab corrosion cracking. Lawv yog yus muaj siab chromium (1932%) thiab molybdenum (txog li 5%) thiab txo npib tsib xee txheem tshaj austenitic stainless steels.

Cov khoom ntawm ob lub tsev stainless steels yog tiav nrog ib sab txhua yam alloy kawm dua zoo kawm super-austenitic qib, lawv siv kom tsis txhob kim rau cov kev siv ntau. Qib ob lub tsev yog thaum yus mus ua tej pawg raws li lawv alloy kawm thiab corrosion ua hauj.

Ntshiv ob lub tsev hais txog cov qib xws li UNS S32101 (LDX 2101), S32202 (UR2202), S32304, thiab S32003.

Txheem ob lub tsev yog 22% chromium nrog UNS S31803/S32205 paub tias 2205 yog ib tug hauv cov lug siv.

Super ob lub tsev yog txhais ib ob lub tsev stainless hlau uas ib Pitting kuj tshaj xov tooj (PREN) > 40, qhov twg PREN = % Cr + 3.3 HM (% Mo + 0.5x%W) + 16 x % N. li ob lub tsev super qib muaj 25% chromium los yog tshaj thiab ib co piv txwv uas yog S32760 (Zeron 100 ntawm kuav los tiag Alloys), S32750 (2507) thiab S32550 (Ferralium),.

Cus ob lub tsev xa ob lub tsev kawm qib uas ib tug uantej > 48 thiab thaum lub caij xwb UNS S32707 thiab S33207 no muaj nyob rau ntawm koj lub lag luam.

Nag lossis daus-cov qhov hauv koj martensitic stainless steels tau corrosion kuj nyob rau lub rau hom austenitic, tab sis yuav tsum nag lossis daus hardened mus dua tseem txawj tshaj rau lwm martensitic qib kawm. Tshaj tej, 17-4PH, siv li 17% chromium thiab 4% npib tsib xee.

Sib piv cov caag steels [txawv]

Siv cov txuj

Tsis muaj steel. k.h.s DIN

Siv cov txuj

Lub npe steel

Qib SAE UNS

1.4109 X65CrMo14 440A S44002

1.4112 X90CrMoV18 440B S44003

1.4125 X105CrMo17 440C S44004

440F S44020

1.4016 X6Cr17 430 S43000

1.4408 G-X 6 CrNiMo 18-10 316 S31600

1.4512 X6CrTi12 409 S40900

410 S41000

1.4310 X10CrNi18-8 301 S30100

1.4318 X2CrNiN18-7 301LN

1.4307 X2CrNi18-9 304L S3043

1.4306 X2CrNi19-11 304L S30403

1.4311 X2CrNiN18-10 304LN S30453

1.4301 X5CrNi18-10 304 S30400

1.4948 X6CrNi18-11 304H S30409

1.4303 X5CrNi18-12 305 S30500

X5CrNi30-9 312

1.4841 X22CrNi2520 310 S31000

1.4845 X 5 CrNi 2520 310S S31008 [31]

1.4541 X6CrNiTi18-10 321 S32100

1.4878 X12CrNiTi18-9 321H S32109

1.4404 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 316L S31603

1.4401 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 316 S31600

1.4406 X2CrNiMoN17-12-2 316LN S31653

1.4432 X2CrNiMo17-12-3 316L S31603

1.4435 X2CrNiMo18-14-3 316L S31603

1.4436 X3CrNiMo17-13-3 316 S31600

1.4571 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 316Ti S31635

1.4429 X2CrNiMoN17-13-3 316LN S31653

1.4438 X2CrNiMo18-15-4 317L S31703

1.4362 X2CrNi23-4 2304 S32304

1.4462 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 2205 S31803/S32205

1.4501 X2CrNiMoCuWN25-7-4 J405 S32760

1.4539 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 904L N08904

1.4529 X1NiCrMoCuN25-20-7 N08926

1.4547 X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 254SMO S31254

Stainless hlau qib [txawv]

Muaj ntau ntau rau koj nee steels stainless thiab lwm yam. Tsab xov xwm nyob rau qib peb SAE steel kom meej coob tus qib uas lawv lub zog.

Stainless tus hlau hauv 3D printing [txawv]

Luam ntawv tej chaw 3D tau tsim proprietary stainless hlau sintering niam siv nyob rau hauv prototyping ceev ceev. Yog ib qhov nrov li hlau stainless qib siv 3D printing yuav 316L Stainless hlau. Vim lub siab kub gradient thiab ceev npaum li cas ntawm solidification, stainless hlau tsev ntawm 3D printing keev muaj ntau refined microstructures. Qhov no nyeg los tau zoo txhua yam khoom. Tiam sis, stainless hlau tsis siv hluav taws ntau li ntau ntawv nyiam Ti6Al4V hauv lub 3D luam ntawv kev lag luam. Qhov no yog vim stainless tus hlau tsev ntawm cov kev mob nyhav data ntau kev lag kev luam.

Stainless hlau finishes [txawv]

Tsab xov xwm tseem ceeb: Brushed hlau

Matte nplaim yeeb nkab, nrog rau ob peb kab rov tav khawb

316L stainless hlau, nrog rau kev unpolished, zeb finish

Zeb txheem finishes yuav applied rau ca kuav los tiag stainless hlau ncaj qha los ntawm tus chais thiab txhua yam ntxhib no los txhuam. Ntxaij xub kuav los tiag luaj li cas thiab thickness thiab ces annealed hloov cov khoom ntawm qhov khoom ntawd kawg. Cov oxidation uas nyob rau ntawm qhov chaw (zeb teev) rho tawm los ntawm pickling, thiab ib txheej bacteria passivation yog tsim nyob rau hauv qhov chaw. Tus zaum kawg tas yuav ces muaj ntaub ntawv after aesthetic lub zog yam.

Tsis tag ntiav. 0: Kub kuav los tiag, annealed, thicker daim hlau

No. 1: Kub kuav los tiag, annealed thiab passivated

No. 2D: mob khaub thuas kuav los tiag, annealed, tsib thiab passivated

Tsis tag ntiav. 2B: tib yam li saum toj no nrog rau lwm pass-through mas polished chais

Tsis 2BA: Bright annealed (kav YWM los yog 2R) tib yam li saum toj no ces kaj tsis pub cov pa atmospheric mob annealed nyob rau hauv

No. 3: Ntxhib abrasive tag hos mechanically

No. 4: Brushed suaj kaum

No. 5: Satin suaj kaum

No. 6: Matte tas (brushed tab sis smoother dua #4)

No. 7: Paab suaj kaum

No. 8: Iav suaj kaum

No. 9: Hlaws moj tej tawg tas

No. 10: Hauv tsev kom sov dawb lias tag thoob plaws ntau yam electropolished thiab tej chaw uas dawb lias hauv tsev kom sov

Producers [txawv]

Ib co producers ntawm stainless hlau loj

Acerinox

Aperam (hu ua ib feem ntawm ArcelorMittal)

Kws ua vajtse Technology Corporation

Outokumpu

ThyssenKrupp

Sandvik